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La cocinas del barroco

Salvador Garcia-Arbós
Salvador Garcia-Arbós 2/10/2014Comentarios

Acaban de aparecer dos libros sobre la gastronomía de 1714, con el mismo título, pero distintos y complementarios

Han aparecido en Catalunya dos libros con el mismo título, ambos sobre la cocina de 1714 y ambos con recetario. Uno del prolífico Jaume Fàbrega, y otro coral, con el cocinero Sergi de Meià y la Doctora Maria Àngels Pérez Samper, catedrática de Historia Moderna de la Universitat de Barcelona, al frente.

La Cuina del 1714, de Jaume Fàbrega (Viena Edicions)Título: La cocina de 1714. Receptes actualitzades

Autor: Varios autores

Editorial: Comanegra

Número de páginas: 185

Precio: 15 €

Solapa: “¿Cómo era la cocina catalana de 1714? Gracias a este libro no sólo la podremos conocer, sino elaborar ho, a los fogones de nuestra moderna cocina, los platos más singulares de hace 300 años. Os ofrecemos una recreación adaptada a los ingredientes y técnicas actuales de las recetas de 1714 gracias al trabajo de cocineros de renombre, como Sergi de Meià o Benvingut Aligué, entre otros. ”

Título: La cocina de 1714. Història i receptes

Autor: Jaume Fàbrega

Editorial: Viena Edicions

Número de páginas: 214

Precio: 19,80 €

Solapa: “¿Qué se cocinaba en los fogones y en las casas de los palacios catalanes en 1714? Tal vez le sorprenda saber que se pueden encontrar las elaboraciones básicas de la cocina catalana actual: del alioli al sofrito, de la picada, a la samfaina, y del cocido (escudella i carn d’olla) a los macarrones. La cocina del barroco encarna un momento apasionante de la historia.

La crítica:

Cuina 1714 ComanegraTodo el mundo debe saber ya que la efemérides más conmemorada en Catalunya es la caída de Barcelona el 11 de septiembre de 1714. Con motivo de los 300 años, se han organizado toda clase de eventos, sociales, docentes y políticos, de los que todo el mundo ha oído algo y tiene formada su opinión.

El siglo XVIII es un período crucial para la historia de la humanidad, por como comienza, más allá de dos momentos, 4 de julio de 1776 y 14 de julio de 1789. En lo que a nosotros corresponde, en el siglo XVIII comienzan a ser cotidianos muchos productos de América, especialmente el chocolate, los pimientos, los tomates, las patatas, tomates, y, como destacan los dos libros que analizamos, se establecen las bases de la cocina moderna, en un momento en que se aprecia una clara continuidad con la cocina medieval, sobre todo por el uso generoso de las especies y la prevalencia de los agridulces, como anota Jaume Fábrega.

Encontramos algunas fuentes destacadas son coincidentes:

Llibre de Coch (1520), que fue traducido al castellano con el nombre Libro de guisados, manjares y potajes, intutulado Libro de Cozina, de Robert de Nola (1525); La cuynera catalana (1833-35); El llibre de cuina de Scala Dei (XVII); Llibre de l’art de quynar, de Fra Sever d’Olot; Llibre dels secrets d’agricultura, casa rústica i pastoril, de fra Miquel Agustí de Banyoles, editado por primera vez en Perpinyà / Perpignan en 1617; Receptari de drogueria i confiteria, de Francesc Corominas de Girona, de 1663. En cambio, Jaume Fàbrega se documenta, además, por la obra del prestigioso historiador Albert Garcia Espuche, Barcelona 1700, y recurre a todo cuanto puede del hiperdietario de Rafael de Amat de Cortada, primer Barón de Maldà y Maldanell, personaje muy estudiado, por otra parte, por Maria Àngels Pérez Samper, gran especialista en la cocina barroca, de la que destacaría su Mesas y cocinas en la España del siglo XVIII, editado en 2010, por Ediciones Trea, de Gijón.

Nos ha quedado claro que en las casas y palacios catalanes comían con un registro muy parecido al actual, con unas diferencias sociales extremas, destacando el hambre especialmente entre los agricultores. Fàbrega señala que, a pesar de estas circunstancias, la sociedad barcelonesa de 1700 estaba muy alimentada, e incluso el pueblo tenía acceso a alimentos refinados y apreciados como los dulces y el chocolate.

También son curiosas las escasas coincidencias en los recetarios:

Escudella i carn d’olla, plato trasversal cotidiano de todas las clases sociales.

Platillo de la batalla d’Almansa, rememora una batalla ocurrida en 1707, una de las más importantes de la Guerra de Sucesión. Es un plato popular y económico cuyo ingrediente principal son los menudillos de pollo, y es fantástico para mojar pan. Este plato solamente con el nombre de platillo sigue incorporado en el recetario popular catalán, con todas las variedades de carnes nobles y casquería que uno pueda imaginar.

Luego están el bacalao con miel, el escabeche de pescado y el manjar blanco.

De las 22 recetas del libro editado por Comanegra, sus autores destacan el capón relleno con salsa de pagó o los buñuelos de garbanzos, actualizados por Sergi de Meià. Este libro cuenta con el apoyo de los actos del Tricentenario y en la Ruta 1714, y cuenta con un prólogo del president, Artur Mas. Es interesante resaltar que, en cada receta de este libro, se cuenta la fuente, se añade su transcripción y comentarios de la Doctora Pérez Samper para poner en contexto cada uno de ellos.

Jaume Fábrega también comenta sus 79 recetas, entre las que destacan las pomes (manzanas) de “relleno”, el vigente bacalao con pasas y piñones, la Salsa eruga (salsa especiada de rúcula, miel y especias, ideal para el pescado) o la porrada (antecesora de la vichyssoise o de la porrusalda) o el medieval piment o hipocrás.

Sin ser distintos en apariencia, ambos libros lo son muchísimo. Sin borrar palabra, de ambos sacaría uno, tal vez mejor. Pero ya se sabe, ¡cada maestrillo tiene su librillo! ¿Lo quieren en catalán? ¡Sí! Tants caps, tants barrets!

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